Timeline of the Cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala

1523

Anonymous portrait of Hernán Cortés, found in the collection of the Naval Museum of Madrid.

At the end of 1523, Hernán Cortés ordered Pedro Alvarado to organize and command an expedition with an army of 750 men to the lands of the future Guatemala.

References:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 17.

Portrait of Alvarado with the cross of the Order of Santiago.

Pedro Alvarado guided the expedition and was chosen to be Governor of the new lands of Guatemala

References:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 17.

1524

Aerial view of Iximche

In 1524 Alvarado arrived in Iximché on April 12 and was welcomed by the community as God

References:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 17.

Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban. The Apostle Santiago, 1655. Oil on canvas, 134 x 107 cm.

On July 25, Juan Godinez celebrates the Apostle’s Day and founded a town and temple in honor.

References:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 17.

On September 5th the properties in Iximché were evacuated due to a local rebellion and moved to the Almolonga Valley.

References:

Guillemin Jorge F., Iximché, capital del antiguo reino cakchiquel, p. 11

1527

On November 21 there was an open town hall to discuss whether it was convenient to settle definitively in the Almolonga Valley. Most of the photos were in favor of staying in Almolonga. 

References:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 18.

On November 22, Don Jorge de Alvarado laid out the layout of the city of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala, with the streets around the temple and the palaces, dedicated to the patron Santiago as stipulated in Izimché.

References:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 17.

-Remesal. fray Antonio de, op. cit., I, p. 40-41

1529

Francisco Larios is identified from dates here butler of the temple and on May 9 he was appointed minor bailiff by Don Jorge de Alvarado

References:

Libro de actas…, p. 102-103

On October 28, the butler decides to leave the city

 

On November 5, Bartolomé Reinoso is appointed the new steward of the temple.

On August 2, the lords of the council secularly like Francisco Castellón as new to the temple

The first official payment is registered on August 28 for 28 pesos to Mr. Francisco de Porras for work carried out on the temple site.

1530

Francisco Marroquín

Carlos I appoints Francisco Marroquín as priest of the Parish in April. the position of Ecclesiastical Judge is occupied by the parish and Guzmán occupies the occupation of the hermit of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios.

On May 23 Corpus Christi is celebrated where the mayors and councilors sent the beginning of the payment of penalties where half would be sent for the church and its construction.

Penalty of 30 gold pesos for not celebrating with dignity as in Spain before the Blessed Sacrament with elegance and an honorable party.

This penalty is repeated for May 7 and 10, 1532, April 9 and 10, 1537 and July 6, 1538.

May 1 Pedro Alvarado orders the fine, to favor the work, for blasphemy and against oaths.

 

On June 3, Don Pedro de Alvarado removed Juan Godínez from priest and appointed 150 pesos of gold for his preaching, shortly after the bishop of Mexico made the official preparation of future prelate priest made. Appointing Juan Godínez in the old place of Marroquín.

30 de Diciembre se impone multa de 4 pesos para la obra de la iglesia a quienes no enterrar a las personas las escrituras en su casa.

 

References:

Remesal, fray Antonio de, op. cit., I, p. 53-54

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 19-20.

1531


On December 29, the City Council donated a site owned by the city in front of the house of the treasurer Francisco de Castellanos. It is considered as the possible extension of the Church.

1532

On September 23, the officers and teachers who would like to take charge of the new work were called to connect with the City Council.

References:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 21-22

Portrait of Empress Elizabeth of Portugal by Titian (1548)

Queen Isabel of Portugal proposes a Francisco Marroquín as bishop for his work and his voluntary contributions to the cathedral. Designating him the title of “Protector of Indians”.

References:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 21-22

1533

 On June 27th the King required the use of slaves for the work, the City Council tried to hire by day but the secular lobby did not loin.

References:
Fuentes y Guzmán , Frnacisco Antonio de, op. 138

On August 27, Moroccan pledged to finish the cathedral as long as the city gave 1500 pesos of mine gold in which it has been appraised by alarifes and officers, the sum was the return and the year after the work.

References:
Remesal, fray Antonio de, io. cit., I, p. 45
A.G.C. A3 27 Exp. 28225 Etapa 1757 fol. 120 A.S.G.H., 1951. XXV46, p. 47-50

1534

Pope Clement VII, by Sebastiano del Piombo

On February 20, Pope Clement VII is requested to officially instigate Marroquín as Bishop of Guatemala.

References:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 20

Pope Paul III, Oil on canvas, 1543 by Titian

December 18, the cathedral was consecrated by Pope Paul III on the day that the revenues of 200 gold ducats were assigned annually to the episcopal table, but in Guatemala a Bishop was not consolidated.

References:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 20

1535

Portrait of Charles seated, by Titian (c. 1548).

March 1 Carlos I makes an alms for the bishop and the work of the Church. Lorción thus the construction of the first cathedral.

Reference:
Remesal, Fray Antonio de, op- cit., I. p.45

1536

Marroquín is named Bishop

Reference:
Ibidem, Sáenz de Santamaría, S. J. Carmelo, io. cit., p. 119

1537

Marroquín is consecrated as bishop by Zumarrága in April

Reference:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 22

By May 10 there were four clergymen and a sacristan.

Marroquín informs Carlos I that the construction of the Church cost 5000 Castilian pesos, with the support of the city council for 2000 annually, without specifying the duration of the financing.

Reference:
Sáenz de Santamaria, S. J. Carneki op. cit., I, p. 197

El 20 de Octubre en Ciudad de México son cadaciones a Marroquín las leyes de Guatemala

1539

On January 20, Marroquín reported through a letter to Carlos I the progress in the construction of the cathedral, reporting the complete construction of the house, altarpiece, choir, bars, bells and internal ornaments such as silver crosses, lamps, scepters … with a cost of six thousand pesos.

Reference:
Op. Cit., P. 146.

1540

On June 10, Carlos I gave two ninths of gold for five years to allow the embellishment of the cathedral.

Reference:
Pardo, L. Joaquín, Handbook of Reakes Cedykas, 1529-1599, p. 27 A.G.I. AI. 2. 3

1541

Due to the heavy rains and conditions such as conditions in September, the first cathedral erected so far (consecrated in 1534 by Paul III) suffered damage and collapse that caused its “destruction”. Union the first building of the cathedral remained intact.

Reference:
Cit., págs. 256-258. Fuentes y Guzmán, Fco. Antonio de, op. cit., II, p. 235 y 284

Panchoy Valley today

On October 2 an open town hall is organized to vote whether to move the city, the idea of ​​changing to the Chimantenalgo valley is considered, however the City Council in the Council of the Italian Engineer Juan Bautista decided to move to the Panchoy valley of course

Reference:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 24-25

On November 18, it was at the peak of the neighbors to fence their plots in the new city with the condition of not selling before the five years. It is considered that the city was already drawn up due to the order executed at the private level.

Reference:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 24-25

1542

On February 20, Marroquín wrote a letter reflecting the changes in the city and the consequences in the character of the new religious building, reporting the total lack of his own budget and that of the crown, requesting support for the new building.

Carlos I envies Honduras and Chiapas a brother-in-law to direct law and administer the execution of the Cathedral.

Reference:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 26-30

On June 30, the testament of Pedro Alvarado requires the construction of a mayoral chapel to the invocation of San Pedro to give chaplaincy masses in its interior.

On August 1, the City Council gave the bishop and the ecclesiastics lands to erect the new cathedral.

August 14, the bricklayer Rodrigo Martínez García promised to build the new cathedral for 400 gold pesos.

On September 4, Marroquín accused of receiving the order of materials from the city council and the possession of trees previously felled to be cut with the proper craftsmen.

On September 15, a report from the City Council is reported to Hernán Jiménez, the attorney in Spain on the change of city and the construction of the new Church.

1543


At the beginning of the year the remains of the old cathedral are dismantled and the materials are resold at a value of 3,000 pesos.


On January 15, Marroquín wrote a letter to Carlos I to indicate the progress and news and the agreement with the city council and the complete vision of the new Church.

Reference:
Sáenz de Santamaría, S. J. Carmelo, op. cit., p. 190.

On January 26, the city council establishes to donate 1600 gold pesos for the construction of the cathedral, delivering the same on January 30.

Reference:

The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 53

Alonso Maldonado, Governor

On March 10, the founding of the city by Alonso de Maldonado is made official.

On September 4, Marroquín accused of receiving the order of materials from the city council and the possession of trees previously felled to be cut with the proper craftsmen.

On September 15, a report from the City Council is reported to Hernán Jiménez, the attorney in Spain on the change of city and the construction of the new Church.

View of what is currently the city

1545

On January 26, the City Council agreed to the purchase and sale of materials by Bishop Marroquín from his old house and on the 30th the sale was made.

Reference:
Pardo, J. Joaquín, Ephemerides …, p. 5 Juarros, Domingo, op. cit., II, p.236

1547

The indications are established in the manuscript and it works for the year to come to come to for the capillaries. Let one be that of Our Lady of Help.

Reference:
A.G.C. A1.24 E. 15753 L.2198 f. 18. Luján Muñoz Luis.

1548

The foundation of the Church is completed and the beginning of the Main Chapel and a provisional ranch are reported, as well as the library and the town hall.

Reference:
The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 31

1550


The Church is still in a precarious state with reports of delay in the work and a long time ahead before it is finished.

On August 4, Carlos I officially approves the architectural work and proposed decorative changes.

References:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 31-32

1551

Paus Julius III

Pope Julius III grants the temple the papal privilege of graces and indulgences.

Reference:
The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 43

1553

The building of a part of the Church is reported next to the sacristy.

Reference:
The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 32

1554

The City Council officially declares that it will not be long before the completion of the Church and that it will be ready for use very soon.

Reference:
A.G.I. Guatemala 168, Cab. to the king, I-VIII-1554

March 11, fifth Sunday of Lent, in the central square of the central city of the Knights an ecclesiastical tribunal is started by Bishop Francisco Marroquín.

During this event the sentences and select punishments for the different ethnic groups would be read to witness the different peoples.

They will preach sermons to the Indians in their languages, detesting and abominating their crime and doing it to Our Lord God “

La investigación arquitectónica al servicio de la sociedad: El Auto de Fe de Antigua Guatemala, Experiencia en el campo

Made by Pierlorenzo V. Ballicu

The work behind the project

Made by Pierlorenzo V. Ballicu

1557

In the month of July, the first religious mass is celebrated inside the new Church. Interrupting the work in progress.

Reference:
Díaz, Víctor Miguel, Las bellas artes…, p. 88. Se trato de un Te Deum por la subida al trono de Felipe II

1559

On December 3, the Bishop wrote a letter complaining about the work of the Church due to the need for the City Council to occupy the Indians and materials for the construction of the Royal House.

Reference:
Saenz de Santamaria, S.J. CArmelo, op. cit., p. 333

1560

The Church begins the work again for the completion in the Cathedral.

The building of the roof of the Church is reported.

Reference:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 33

1563

Bishop Francisco Marroquín, Guatemala.

On April 9, Bishop Marroquín dies and is buried in front of the lamp of the Blessed Sacrament on the 20th.

Reference:
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 32

1571

On March 3, the ecclesiastical council issued a concise order to build the vault for the bishops, occupying the chapels behind the main altar.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 33

The vault for bishops and prelates is built in the two chapels behind the main altar according to a report by Luis Luján.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 44

1575

Bricks and tiles are received to roof the rest of the Cathedral under a donation from Bartolomé de Archila, confirmed in his will.

Reference:
A.G.I. Guatemala 165, 21-III-1575

1603

Se reportaron daños el 1 de Mayo posterior al Sismo, ejecutando 4 meses de trabajo en puras reparaciones a techos y decoraciones.

Referencia:
Fuentes y Guzmán, Fco. Antonio de, op. cit., III, p. 356

1604

Under order of Bishop Juan Ramírez de Arellano, the bricklayer Sebastián López hired people to work on the cathedral.

AGI - Aud de Guatemala - 165-Relationship of the Cabildo Ecco on the rents and necessity of the cathedral 9 April-1604

1606

The lack of building the Tower is still reported and the repairs in the temple and the provision of ornaments were continued.

1608

AGI Aud de Guatemala - 165-Autos sobre la erección de la catedral de Guatemala - 26 de enero 1608

1614

On April 1, restoration work begins on the first bell, under the supervision of the butler.

Reference:
The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 35

1616

On November 12, the restoration work on the first bell is completed, under the supervision of the butler.

Reference:
The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 35

1617

The stone construction of the Plaza Mayor is ceded and works in the cathedral are reported.

Reference:
The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 36

The painter Francisco Montúfar Bravo paints the gilding and the chapel of Nuestra Señora del Socorro.

Reference:
Berlin, Henrich, History of imagery …, p. 138.

The choir carved in cedar with 15 seats is described, 7 per side with the chair of the prelate higher than the canons with the image of the fisherman in the background.
In the center of the choir there was a cedar lectern with its foot and base, and a pulpit.

Reference:
The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 40-41

1619

Bartolomé Mexía contracts the manufacture of a painting, possibly a mural, for one of the chapels present in the cathedral.

Reference:
The cathedrals of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (1st ed.). (1981). National Autonomous University of Mexico Instituto de Inv Tig. Page 36

1620

The Chapel of Socorro is inaugurated and the suspension of work due to lack of budget is reported.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 36

On October 22, the image of the Virgen del Socorro is tied and placed from the main alatar to the chapel.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 41

1634

On April 22, the ecclesiastical council assigned a place to build the Socorro chapel, a tomb for the president of the Royal Audience, Don Alvaro de Quiñones Osorio, and another for the dean of the first cathedral, Juan Godínez.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 45

1658


On July 11, Cristóbal Martín Lobato worked on the litters for processions in the cathedral

Reference:

Berlin Henrich, Artistas y artesanos…, p. 32.

1660

Debidos los daños constantes por la naturaleza y el mal mantenimiento se reportó el cambio del altar mayor a una nueva ubicación, el mismo periodo del término de la bóveda de la capilla.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 46

1666

March 6 the ecclesiastical notary was commissioned to write up the income and donations for the tithe temple in the last 20 years.
-Miguel de Cuéllar Barona

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 61

1669

On March 21 damage and collapses of the Main Chapel are reported due to natural damage.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 49

Did you know?
Due to the damages, the projection and work for the cathedral begins, this being the third cathedral in Santiago, various dates are speculated: October 5 according to “Juarros” – October 29 according to letters from the major worker and Bishop Ortega and other authors. 30th of October

On July 11, according to reports, we see that the demolition begins due to the damage caused by the collapse of the Mayor Chapel.

Reference:

Juarros, Domingo, op. p. 238, Molina Fray Antonio p.84

1670

In January the work begins outside the foundations in the same position as the old cathedral, for August 16 the lifting of the walls of the chapels is reported at half height. On the 20th of the same month, the president of the Audiencia Sebastián Álvarez shared that in eight months the foundations had carved stone cornices around their circumference, lacking only the foundation of the cover and two chapels, one of the Tabernacle and the last of the Incarnation.

Reference:

A.G.I. Guatemala 166 16-viii
A.G.I. Guatemala 20-i
Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 107

1671

In February, a securing of materials for the collapse of the walls and explosives begins.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 51

12 de Marzo se registra la compra de 400 fanegas de cal a 150 pesos a José Valcárcel y el 21 de Marzo se pagó el flete para el transporte del material con 91 pesos y 7 reales.

Reference:

A.G.I. Guatemala 166, 8-v

In December the proportion of materials for the walls of the Temple by Antonio Vásquez, the main supplier of gunpowder, is finished.

Reference:

A.G.I. Guatemala 166

7 November the complete foundation of the cathedral is confirmed and on the 20th of the same month a good part of the surface of the earth was raised, having stone bases already carved and cast; the walls had up to three scaffolds high in its different parts.

Reference:

Las catedrales de Santiago de los caballeros de Guatemala (1a ed.). (1981). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto de Inv Tig. Pag 108

1678

Guatemala Cathedral Construction Ramírez Montufar, Antonio Date: 1678

A total of 10 central domes are observed in the painting, it is suspected that after the tremors of the following years the design was changed


It is observed that the construction materials, in essence, are brick, lime (for mortar, but for the finish), and sand or tepetate


Ramírez’s painting shows the state of the cathedral in 1678 when the work was not finished, and there was a lot missing with respect to the final building, a portion a redesign due to the damage caused by the earthquakes of 1717, 1751 and, above all, 1773.


Reference:

Garin, Maza, Castaño. (n.d.). La construcción de la Catedral de Antigua Guatemala en el siglo XVII a partir de los documentos pictóricos Garín (Garin) Vitruvio – Revista Internacional de Tecnología Arquitectónica y Sostenibilidad. Sistema de identificación de objetos digitales. https://doi.org/10.4995/vitruvio-ijats.2017.8794

1680

On November 26, King Carlos II was informed in an official letter of:

“The work of the cathedral church of that city had been completely completed and the Blessed Sacrament moved to it with great rejoicing on November 6 from the hospital of San Pedro where it was.”

(Other documents set the transfer date to November 5)

Reference:

A.G.C. A1.23 4587 f. 23 (1681).

Juarros, Domingo, op. cit., II, p. 241-242

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